Purines are essential molecules for all forms of life. SALVAGE PATHWAYS (the reutilization of bases from dietary or catabolic sources) 1. In addition to constituting a backbone of DNA and RNA, purines play roles in many metabolic pathways, such as energy utilization, regulation of enzyme activity, and cell signaling. The former is the main synthesis pathway of nucleotides , the latter is important one in brain and bone marrow. Keywords:Purine salvage pathway, parasitic protozoa, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Plasmodium, inhibitors, iminoribitols, nucleoside hydrolase. The mutations cause deficiencies in adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (adeF), in hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (guaF), in adenine deaminase (adeC), in inosine-guanosine phosphorylase, (guaP), and in GMP reductase (guaC). Salvage pathway involves synthesis of purine nucleotides from free purine bases, which are salvaged from dietary sources and tissue breakdown. Salvage pathway (recycle pathway): used to recover bases and nucleosides formed during the degradation of RNA and DNA Purine Nucleotide Metabolism Anabolism There are two pathways of synthesis of purine nucleotides : 1.the De Novo synthesis pathway and the 2.Salvage pathway. The net formation of purine nucleotides is performed by the de novo pathway, but rapid turnover of nucleic acids, especially RNA, is required for nucleotide production by the salvage pathways. (1) de-novo synthesis and (2) synthesis by salvage pathways. The supply of purines is provided by two pathways: the salvage pathway and de novo synthesis. Similarly, the purine salvage pathway has also been DE NOVO BIOSYNTHETIC PATHWAYS (building the bases from simple building blocks) The biosynthesis of purine (A and G) begins with the synthesis of the ribose-phosphate Ribose phosphate pyrophospho-KINASE Pentose phosphate Brain cells and leukocytes lack this mechanism. Understand the Two Pathways of nucleotide biosynthesis (1) De-novo synthesis and (2) Salvage Pathways. II. Abstract. Studies specific to enzymes found in the de novo purine synthesis pathway have shown that absence of key enzymes in the pathway can directly affect growth rates and virulence in Bacillusanthracis (35), Y. pestis (9), S. Typhimurium (48), and Streptococcus pneu-moniae (56). Abstract: For many years, the purine salvage pathway of parasitic protozoa has been regarded as an attractive chemotherapeutic target. generate purines and pyrimidines 2. In these cells purine synthesis occurs by salvage pathway. salvage pathway causes increased PRPP levels and decreased IMP and GMP levels. As a result, GPAT (the regulated step in purine synthesis) has excess substrate and decreased inhibitors available, and de novo purine synthesis is increased. 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