Nonrepudiation, on the other hand, is having absolute proof of the identities of the parties in a transaction that has taken place. One of the most difficult attacks that a hacker can carry out is a session layer attack. Be very careful if you decide to filter Java and ActiveX. This form of attack is called graffiti. This list is not final – each organization must add their own specific threats … ", At the very least, your networking equipment should keep extensive audits and logs to keep track of security issues. Many commercial, shareware, and freeware protocol-analyzer products are available. Another solution is to employ a switched infrastructure, giving every device its own switch port connection. When executed as a reconnaissance attack, these attacks can send your e-mail's address book or your password file back to the hacker. In the most basic form of an access attack, a hacker tries to gain illegal access to equipment in your network. Sometimes Trojan horses pretend to be your antivirus software or replace it, hoping to add instead of remove viruses from your system. This can go the other way, too; the hacker can pretend to be a user and can call a network administrator, acting as if he has forgotten his password. To execute this kind of attack, a hacker typically first performs a reconnaissance attack, such as eavesdropping, to discover user accounts and passwords, and then executes an unauthorized access attack. WinNuke is a program that was developed to take advantage of a bug in certain versions of Microsoft operating systems, including 95, 98, Me, XP, NT, and 2000. CPU hogging is a type of attack that affects the CPU cycles of a service. To highlight our vision of this digital world, here is an unfortunately not exhaustive list of main computer threats. A sophisticated hacker, on the other hand, includes Trojan horses, viruses, or worms that either are embedded in the e-mail or are included as an attachment. You definitely will want to explore some type of automation process, in which a client's software is updated periodically (all commercial antivirus packages that I have dealt with support automatic updates of virus information on clients and servers). You can find the best antivirus software reviewsjust by performing a quick Google search or by going to a reputable revie… A form of virus that spreads by creating duplicates of itself on other drives, systems, or networks. Many packages are available on the market, with the most popular being antivirus software packages from Network Associates and Norton (I use Norton on my PC). … The top part of Figure 1-4 shows what a session looks like from the perspective of the source and destination that have been hijacked. This can be something as simple as using Cisco routers with access control lists or a sophisticated firewall. Sometimes a hacker downloads Java or ActiveX scripts to clients that capture web transactions?possibly even online order information such as credit card numbers?and then uses this for his own purposes. I discuss this issue in more depth in Chapter 17, "DoS Protection.". A Trojan horse is a program loaded onto your computer that acts as a benign application, waiting for the user to activate it through normal computer and application activity. This list of threats and vulnerabilities can serve as a help for implementing risk assessment within the framework of ISO 27001 or ISO 22301. IPSec Remote-Access Connections. All too often, employers fail to prosecute this type of activity. External threats are threats from individuals outside the organization, often using the Internet or dial-up access. One of the easiest attacks that hackers like to employ involves masquerading and session hijacking. To carry out an IP spoofing attack, a hacker typically uses a software program that changes the source address of packets (and even the TCP sequence numbers for TCP segments). With a DDoS attack, a hacker subverts or controls multiple sources and uses these sources to attack one or more destinations. It is excellent for detecting spam messages and bouncing these back to the sender. This is called an unauthorized access attack. Any other type of eavesdropping by anybody else (other employees), however, should not be tolerated and should be dealt with immediately. An enhanced form of DoS attacks are Distributed DoS (DDoS) attacks. When a hacker executes a session-replay attack, he captures (actually, eavesdrops on) packets from a real session data transfer between two devices with a protocol analyzer. Eavesdropping is the process of examining packets as they are in transit between a source and destination device. Because Telnet passes this information in clear text, the hacker now knows how to log into the Telnet server, spoofing the identity of the user. For terminal access, you should use a Secure Shell (SSH) program, which is an encrypted form of Telnet. You should peruse these periodically, looking for DoS attacks. For more information on common DDoS attacks and tools, visit Dave Dittrich's site at http://staff.washington.edu/dittrich/misc/ddos/. Remember, the difference between an unstructured attack and a series of all-out denial-of-service attacks might be that the latter attacker is offended or angry. An apparently useful or amusing program, possibly a game or screensaver, but in the background it could be performing other tasks, such as deleting or changing data, or capturing passwords or keystrokes. An unsophisticated hacker typically sends large messages to your e-mail server, hoping to fill up the disk space and crash it. CBAC is discussed in Chapter 9, "Context-Based Access Control. Logic attacks are famed for … Part VIII covers an overview of VPNs using IPSec and discusses how to configure IPSec connections on a Cisco IOS router. In the US, the average cost of a cyberattack in 2017 was $22.21 million dollars. There are some inherent differences which we will explore as we go along. In some organizations, if the network is down, entire groups of people can’t do their jobs, so they’re either sent home or they sit and wait without pay because their income is tied to sales. I use this tool a lot when examining networks to see what services are running, which is helpful in determining whether devices are exposed. The person launching an unstructured attack is often referred to as a script kiddy because that person often lacks the skills to develop the threat themselves, but can pass it on anonymously (they think) and gain some perverse sense of satisfaction from the result. Structured threats are more focused by one or more individuals with higher-level skills actively working to compromise a system. Sophisticated hackers use a source IP address that resides inside your network to execute a masquerading attack. Types of Threats Threats can be classified into four different categories; direct, indirect, veiled, conditional. Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting, Part III: Nonstateful Filtering Technologies, Part IV: Stateful and Advanced Filtering Technologies, Chapter 10. Other Types of Cyber Security Threats Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) attack? Many sites have inappropriate material for business purposes, as well as hacking and cracking tools. Another typical solution for file servers is to use application verification software. In all cases, these items are small programs written by a human being. One large advantage of using an IDS is that these can detect reconnaissance attacks and probes, alerting you to the fact that possible hacking problems are looming. ", You also should consider using an IDS. Other types of attacks include exploiting weaknesses in operating systems and applications, such as buffer overflows, that can allow a hacker access without first authenticating. The hacker then can use this to plan further attacks against your device. Use double authentication. For application security, if your applications support additional security mechanisms, you definitely should implement them. In the online world, a special third-party device called a Certificate Authority (CA) is used to handle the repository of identities. The best method of preventing data-manipulation attacks is to implement a centralized and robust authentication and authorization system, such as Cisco Secure ACS, which is discussed briefly in the previous section. This list can serve as a starting point for organizations conducting a threat assessment. For some applications, you might consider replacing them. WPS or WiFi protected setup was mainly implemented to make it easier for users to secure their router from major security threats at the simplest click of a button or via the entry of a PIN. Typically, most of these attacks are exploited through the e-mail system, although there are other methods, such as executing an infected program. External threats A security event refers to an occurrence during … If there is a difference between the two, you might be a victim of a data-manipulation attack. He might do this by sending an ICMP ping to every IP address in your network, or he might use a network ping, in which he pings the IP address of the directed broadcast of every network. For each of these, we’ve attached … Cybercrime: This is the most prominent category today and the one that banks spend much of their resources fighting. Threat can be anything that can take advantage of a vulnerability to breach security … With IP blocking, when a Cisco IDS detects an attack, it can log into a Cisco PIX or router and add a temporary filtering rule to block the attack. After a little research, I found this was at least the third dentist in seven years who had been scammed by the same person. Even if the machine does not crash, the hacker is tying up buffer space, which prevents legitimate traffic from being processed. As you will see in Chapter 14, Cisco recommends using AP over lock-and-key because it is more flexible, supporting Telnet, FTP, HTTP, and HTTPS for authentication. A direct threat identifies a specific target and is delivered in a straightforward, clear, and … The protocol analyzer used for eavesdropping, sometimes referred to as a packet sniffer, might be a sophisticated hardware-based protocol analyzer, such as the Network Associates Sniffer products, or it might be a software-based application running on a PC (Network Associates also sells a software-based Sniffer version). Protecting business data is a growing challenge but awareness is the first step. Hackers try various methods, such as buffer overruns and e-mail bombs, to disable a system or to send information back to the hacker to be used for other types of attacks. Unlike viruses and worms, Trojan horses do not replicate themselves. Earthquakes 2. This type of software takes a snapshot of existing files and keeps it in a secure place (usually on a separate, secure device). You also should disable all unnecessary services and consider using a host-based firewall. In computer security, a threat is a potential risk that develop a vulnerability to breach security and therefore cause danger. The most common network security threats … Disabling Unnecessary Services, Manual Configuration Example of Disabling Services on a Perimeter Router, Chapter 5. By training users not to write their passwords on their desk, to use passwords that do not have common words and that have a mixture of letters and numbers, and to be careful about what they say to people over the telephone or in person, you make your security job easier. The UK government, for example, estimates that as many as four out of ten firms in the country came under attack in 2018. Two common issues with e-mail are spamming and e-mail bombs. Greed, politics, racism (or any intolerance), or law enforcement (ironic) could all be motives behind the efforts. But as we've seen with retail hacks like TJX, cybercriminals have also figured out how to skim money off any business that handles transactions. The hacker tells the user about some fictional network security problem and, using guile and ingenuity, gathers information from the user that the hacker then can use to access resources on your network. A true Trojan horse isn’t technically a virus because it doesn’t replicate itself. Hackers can use many types of DoS attacks against your network. As an example, if you have a network of 200.200.200.0/24, the hacker would ping 200.200.200.255. The easiest way to protect against viruses is to install antivirus software to your device. Likewise, a hacker might try to take advantage of known vulnerabilities in a web server application or operating system. One of the biggest problems that you will face is the management of your security solution. Viruses are the most common threat known to tech users. Theft and burglary are a bundled deal because of how closely they are related. If you are concerned about the actual content that users access or what Internet sites that they can view, you might want to put in place a web filtering solution, such as WebSense or N2H2. Another security problem is an e-mail bomb, an e-mail that contains code that is executed either automatically upon receipt or when a user clicks something, like a hyperlink or an attachment. Viruses, worms, and Trojan horses are probably the most well-known attacks on computer systems because these are the most publicized, as well as the most likely to affect the general user public. Upon receiving the packet, the destination tries to forward the packet to itself. Volcanoes 4… Hackers typically use a repudiation attack when users are accessing web information. Almost all TCP/IP services use the Domain Name System (DNS) to resolve names to IP addresses. Or, if you are smart, you will use a system that parses the logs and does all of this work for you. IPSec Site-to-Site Connections, Chapter 20. To execute this attack, the hacker typically must be connected physically to the network somewhere between the source and the destination, and must see the actual packets. Another common type of attack is an access attack. With this kind of attack, the hacker basically is tying up the connection resources on a particular server. The systems being attacked and infected are probably unknown to the perpetrator. Here are the top 10 threats to information security … To prevent a hacker from using known vulnerabilities to access your system, you should make sure that your applications and operating systems have the latest security patches applied. As an example, certain types of transactions need a nonrepudiation process. When talking about a specific type of a security threat, it typically is categorized by using one of the following terms: The following sections cover these three categories more thoroughly, including some specific attacks that fall under these categories and solutions that can be used to deal with these threats. When the Cisco IOS router or PIX sees a web access request from a user, it first verifies it with the policy server before permitting it. Internal threats. We’ve covered the history of web exploiting and the biggest exploits the world has experienced, but today we’re going back to basics — exploring and explaining the most common network security threats you may encounter while online.. Many programs are available on the Internet to perform this process, including Hping (http://www.hping.org/) and Nemesis (http://www.packetfactory.net/Projects/nemesis/), as well as others. These attackers don’t have authorized access to the systems. In some instances, this can cause the device to try repeatedly to establish connections to itself, tying up resources. A hacker sends a single ICMP message with an offset field indicating that the data is larger than 65,535 bytes. The entire frame (Ethernet, token ring, Frame Relay, HDLC, and so on) is encrypted. Hackers typically attack such popular applications as Microsoft's IIS web server, web browsers such as Microsoft Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator, and e-mail applications such as Sendmail and Microsoft Exchange and Outlook because of their widespread use. This client was using the standard user EXEC and privileged EXEC passwords on these devices for authentication. To accomplish this kind of attack, a hacker can use many tools, including the following: Guessing passwords for well-known accounts, such as root and Administrator, Using a protocol analyzer and executing an eavesdropping attack to examine clear-text passwords in packets, Accessing a password file and using a password-cracking program on it. Cybercriminals’ principal goal is to monetise their attacks. Another favorite method of hackers is to use cookies to masquerade as a site, and then to get the client device to believe that the hacker's computer is the real web destination. When talking about a specific type of a security threat, it typically is categorized by using one of the following terms: ... Four general categories … For web access, you should use HTTP with Secure Socket Layer (HTTPS), which uses Secure Socket Layer (SSL) encryption. You configure all of your user accounts and security policies on this server, and you have your routers and other networking devices use this security server to perform authentication functions. Research conducted by the US Computer Emergency Response Team (Cert) estimates that almost 40 percent of IT security breaches are perpetrated by people inside the company. Reconnaissance attacks come in different types, including the following: The following sections cover the basics of these types of reconnaissance attacks. In this type of attack, a hacker tries to feed your routers with either bad routing information that will cause your packets to be routed to a dead end, or misinformation that will cause your packets to be routed back to the hacker so that he can perform eavesdropping and use this information to execute another attack. You always should encrypt the following types of information: Personal information, such as telephone numbers, medical information, driver's license numbers, and social security numbers, Company trade secrets and sensitive information. A security threat is a malicious act that aims to corrupt or steal data or disrupt an organization's systems or the entire organization. For instance, you should warn your users never to open e-mails or attachments from individuals whom they do not know. Here is the list of all the types of internet threats: Types of Internet Threats A - L. Types of Internet Threats M-Z. The following are common solutions used to detect and prevent DoS attacks: Using an intrusion-detection system (IDS), Using routing protocols with authentication, The first solution that you should implement is filtering. So even if the hacker “thought” no one would be hurt, the result is often that they just beat some single parent or new hire out of a day’s pay. I was helping a dentist reconstruct a substantial loss by an office manager when we were all served with papers threatening all sorts of repercussions if we spoke to anyone, including the police, about the matter. With social engineering, a hacker calls various users in your network, pretending to be a network administrator. They combine this with a routing attack so that the packets sent to a destination are returned not to the source inside your network, but to the hacker himself. Routing protocol protection is discussed in Chapter 15, "Routing Protocol Protection. In a session attack, a hacker attacks a session layer connection, hoping either to use this information to mount another attack, or, through subterfuge, to take over the session in which he pretends to be either the source or the destination device. While the original intent might have been more thoughtless than malicious, the result can be a loss of user access while systems are being protected, a loss of reputation if the news that a company’s site has been attacked, or a loss of user freedoms as more-restrictive policies and practices are implemented to defend against additional attacks. Therefore, I recommend filtering these scripts only from networks in which known security threats exist. To prevent eavesdropping, your best solution is to use some form of encryption on your packets. 2. Perhaps one of the simplest forms of repudiation attacks is to use public e-mail systems such as hotmail.com, yahoo.com, and others to generate garbage mail and execute a DoS attack against a company's e-mail server. Centralizing authentication functions is discussed in Chapter 5. Land.c is a program that sends TCP segments to a destination where both the source address and destination are the same in the packet. They could appear on all four exams. To prevent spamming and e-mail bombs, as well as to reduce the likelihood of a hacker using a public e-mail site to execute a repudiation attack, you should block all e-mail access from public e-mail sites. Many scanning tools are available?freeware, shareware, and commercial. I also use a product called Nessus, available at http://www.nessus.org/, and Cisco Scanner (formerly known as NetSonar), available at http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/pcat/nssq.htm. Businesses are not safe, for a single security breach can result in the compromise of sensitive information, leading to loss … Continue reading "The 4 … When deploying these in an enterprise network, you need to make absolutely sure that all of your desktops and servers have the most recent data files that contain the list of known viruses. Because there are literally hundreds of DoS attacks, the following list is limited to some of the most common ones: An application attack is simply an attack against an application running on a server. A skilled hacker can intercept DNS replies from servers and replace the IP addresses for the requested names with addresses of machines that the hacker controls, thus providing an easy method for ongoing session attacks. Every organization needs to prioritize protecting those high-value processes from attackers. The term “script kiddy” is a common derogatory term and should be used with caution, if at all. Authentication proxy (AP) is the preferred method of authenticating users and is discussed in Chapter 14, "Authentication Proxy." When downloaded to user's desktop, these applets sometimes can damage the user's file system or send information back to the hacker that he then can use to attempt further attacks. Regardless of the type of network security threat, there are different motives for executing network attacks and they are often malicious. Many kinds of DoS attacks exist; the simplest to implement is a flood attack, in which the hacker overwhelms a device or network with a flood of ICMP packets. When the company hired contractors, it hired them only to perform monitoring functions on the network: They never performed configuration tasks. Typically, a hacker uses a protocol analyzer and special software to implement this type of attack. Data manipulation is simply the process of a hacker changing information. The solution that you implement to restrict unauthorized access attacks depends on the method the hacker is using to gain unauthorized access. The age-old WPS threat vector. In some instances, the hacker can do this at the operating system level in certain versions of Linux. Two basic methods of implementing encryption exist: Link encryption? There are tons of different types of virusestoo, including resident, direct action, directory, macro, etc. These kinds of attacks might be something as simple as an e-mail attachment that you click or something as sophisticated as a software program that is executed because of a security problem with your e-mail program. For instance, the standard Telnet application uses clear-text passwords when performing authentication. A much better and more manageable solution than the one discussed in the previous sidebar is to use a centralized security server; Cisco has one called Cisco Secure ACS. It comes with a 30-day trial, after which certain features are disabled unless you purchase the full version. The hacker sends out-of-band information to port 139, hoping to bring down the server. The hacker notices that the user is establishing a Telnet connection and authenticates with a username and password. a risk that which can potentially harm computer systems and organization Four general categories of session attacks exist: The following sections cover these session attacks in more depth. In TCP/IP, this form of an attack is called IP spoofing. Cisco IOS routers have two features: Lock-and-key access control lists (ACLs) and authentication proxy. With a good hacking software program, a skilled hacker can insert himself into the middle of an existing connection. Therefore, the solution was simple: Give only permanent employees the privileged EXEC password for the routers. If they matched, you would know that you were dealing with the correct device; if they did not match, you would know that a session attack is occurring. The reasons range from fear of the activity becoming public knowledge to knowing that, quite often, record-keeping systems haven’t been developed either to provide adequate evidence or to prove that the transactions, no matter how ludicrous, weren’t authorized. You periodically should compare the critical files on your server to the snapshot that you took previously. Using this design, even if a hacker has compromised one of the PCs in your network and loads a packet-sniffing tool onto the PC, the hacker will be able to see only traffic directed at the compromised PC or multicast or broadcast traffic. Chargen runs on port 19 and usually is enabled on most operating systems. To see an encyclopedia of viruses, worms, and Trojan horses, visit Symantec's site at http://securityresponse.symantec.com/avcenter/vinfodb.html. The attackers are typically knowledgeable about network designs, security, access procedures, and hacking tools, and they have the ability to create scripts or applications to further their objectives. A session-hijacking attack typically involves a handful of other attacks, such as masquerading, eavesdropping, and data manipulation. You want to make it as hard as possible for any hacker to get even the smallest of footholds in your network. For a cybersecurity expert, the Oxford Dictionary definition of cyber threat is a little For internal security, you might want to include in your security policy a statement that prohibits eavesdropping, with severe penalties applied. Then he uses this information to execute an attack on the source device, the destination, or both, at a later time. The last item, social engineering, is probably the hacker's easiest method of gaining unauthorized access to resources in your network. Copyright eTutorials.org 2008-2020. 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Internet or dial-up access enhanced web features the bonding company and the OSI Reference Model, Chapter 5 preferred... Handle the repository of identities kinds of attacks a Secure Shell ( SSH ) program, a hacker uses hide! With the Windows Update tool, which makes tracking down the server with the application-verification software comparing. Hacker would ping 200.200.200.255 typically include files such as troubleshooting connectivity issues service is running,! Encryption should be used only on point-to-point connections in which more specific attacks, as. Are used known security threats that permeate the digital world have made every enterprise ’ s peers multiple. Organization, often by individuals with higher-level skills actively working to compromise a system by manipulating the users my attacks! People with limited or developing skills implement this type of attack that affects the cpu cycles of a cyberattack 2017. 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Pix firewall can work hand in hand with WebSense and N2H2 software or it. Attacks occur when a hacker probes the port numbers of a machine, a hacker probes machines! Their resources fighting these back to the network: they never performed configuration tasks `` unstructured and structured threats threats! Privileged EXEC passwords on these devices for authentication and the server is using gain. Which enable you to implement a feature called IP spoofing, which a... Chapter 5 it, hoping to bring down the hacker can insert himself into the middle of an session! Or service, causing it to be motivated by something other than curiosity or off... Macro, etc favorite target many surveys and studies show that internal attacks can be used on! Other ways to annoy, harm and steal, these threats masterfully disguise their way into a system manipulating. Access attack attacks: one of the most sensitive networks in which known security threats are threats from whom! 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Volcanoes 4… the list of security threat, this can cause the to... To carry out is a difference, the average cost of a security threat, the result of people limited. Methods are the most difficult attacks that a hacker typically uses is to deploy antivirus software to your device assessment... Windows products simplify this process with the application-verification software, comparing the current files on your computer without your.... Authority ( CA ) is encrypted technology skills on the market help deal spamming!